Research on Statistical Profile of Holy Quran and Symmetry of Makki and Madni Surahs

Muslims and non-Muslims have done tremendous work on various aspects of the Holy Quran in respect of its detailed Tafseers, its indexing counting of words, letters vowels number of occurrences of certain words, numerical wonders of Quranic texts including miracles.

Dr. Munir Ahmad and Muhammad Khyzer Bin Dost, in the research, studied the various Suras, Manzils, and Groups of Holy Quran statistically on the basis of lengths of words to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To understand the underlying statistical structures of Surahs.
  2. To highlight the similarities and differences among Makki, Madani and other groupings of Surahs in Quran.
  3. To understand the symmetry of Makki and Madni surahs by studying the Skewness and Kurtosis.
numerical miracles
Symmetry in the words of Quran

The frequency of the words is shockingly symmetrical. The word “Men” is mentioned 24 times and the word “Women” is also mentioned 24 times. Similarly, “Hardship” is mentioned 114 times and “Patience” is also mentioned 114 times.

makki madni
Numbers of ayats, words, letters, and ayat-size by word, Ayat-size by letters and word-size by
letters of Makki and Madani Surahs

Madani Ayats are almost twice as much as Makki Ayats both by letters and by the words. Similarly, the Madani word size is also larger than Makki word. In fact, the Madani Ayat size is larger than all Ayats in the Holy book.

makki madnis
Word size by type of Surahs

In the Holy Quran, there are 9,398 words with one letter per word and 14,646 words with two letters per word. It shows that there are 10.82% of words with one letter and 16.96% words with two letters per word, showing that there are 27.78% words with two- and one – letters word.

Bivariate β1 and β2 -3 graphs of Makki and Madni Surahs showed the symmetry of Makki and Madni Surahs.

Graphical representation of (β1, β2 -3) of Makki Surahs
Graphical representation of (β1, β2 -3) of Madni Surahs

Makki Surahs were found to be closer to symmetrical function as compared to Madni Surahs.

For complete data analysis and results, please click on the link in the references.


Dr. Munir Ahmad – Statistical Profile of Holy Quran and Symmetry of Makki and Madni Surahs



  1. Suggestion:
    Respectfully, where you say ” the symmetry of words is SHOCKINGLY similar”, use “STUNNINGLY” or “ASTOUNDINGLY” similar
    ” Shockingly” has negative overtones!

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